Brain damage occurs when there is a loss of nerve cells. This leads to the reduction of the neurotransmitter dopamine – typical of Parkinson’s disease.
Do you have the condition?
The charity Parkinson’s Foundation declared that “most people with Parkinson’s have some loss of their sense of smell”.
Known as hyposmia, it can be an early warning sign of the neurodegenerative brain condition.
In fact, it’s reported that the loss of your sense of smell can appear “several years” before a Parkinson’s diagnosis.
There are movement symptoms too, such as drooling, stooped posture and tremors.
The Parkinson’s Foundation stated more than 10 million people worldwide are living with the condition.
Even though it can affect so many people, everybody will experience the disease differently.
Of course, there are common symptoms people with disease can share, but the severity and compilation of symptoms is unique to each individual.
Scientists are in agreement that the disease is brought on from genetics and the environment.
There have been several gene mutations linked to Parkinson’s that disrupt a protein form its normal workload.
The Parkinson’s Foundation noted three specific gene mutations, named GBA, SNCA, and LRRK2.
It’s reported that up to 10 percent of people with Parkinson’s have a mutation in this gene.
To date, researchers have identified 380 mutations of this gene, with only a handful connected to Parkinson’s disease.
The GBA1 gene produces a protein responsible for managing the cell’s garbage disposal system.
Mutations in this gene are linked to the build-up of alpha-synuclein clumps.
This gene produces the protein alpha-synuclein however, a mutation can cause excess production of alpha-synuclein.
An accumulation of alpha-synuclein in the brain is toxic and has been found in the brains of people who suffer from Parkinson’s.
A genetic mutation of this gene can be found in two percent of people with Parkinson’s.
Mutation of this gene leads to the loss of neurons, typical of the brain disease.
Scientists are currently testing drugs that block the abnormal activities of these genes to treat Parkinson’s.